The academics Lara García Díaz and Pascal Gielen argue that the precarious condition that afflicts cultural entrepreneurs could be the fertile albeit, although dark seedbed for new forms of “commoning” which are able to overcome the tragic absence of stable economic resources in the cultural field.
By contrast, a collective and heterogeneous commoning labor model tends to diffuse the boundaries between the spheres of production and reproduction, recognizing their equal importance and addressing hence all four levels of precarization detailed at the beginning of this text.
In this particular text, we will be consistently using the term “cultural entrepreneur” to refer to a type of freelance worker operating within the fields of art and culture, who has been integrated into a specific form of cultural economy based on self-employment.
Annet Jantien Smit, “The influence of district visual quality on location decisions of creative entrepreneurs,” Journal of American Planning Association, vol. 77, no. 2, 2011, pp. 167–184.
G.T Lumpkin and Gregory G. Dess, “Clarifying the Entrepreneurial Orientation Construct and Linking It to Performance,” Academy of Management: The Academy of Management Review vol. 21, no. 1, January 1996, pp. 135–172.
Josephine Berry, “Agents of Objects of Discontinuous Change? Blairite Britain and the Role of the Culturepreneur,” Kunstlicht [Cultural Policies: Agendas of Impact], vol. 37, no. 1, 2016, pp. 25–36.
Lara García Díaz and Pascal Gielen, “Precarity as an Artistic Laboratory for Counter-Hegemonic Labour Organization,” Precarious Work, Precarious Life: Frame Journal of Literary Studies, vol. 30, no. 2, December 2017. And Lara García Díaz and Pascal Gielen, “Precariat–A Revolutionary Class?,” in Commonism, eds. P. Gielen and N. Dockx (Amsterdam: Valiz, 2018), 169–182.
David Graeber, Debt: The First 5,000 Years (New York: Melville House, 2011)
Lara García Díaz, “Precarious Recipes: Networks of Subsistence” in García Díaz, Prekari>art, Bilbao: Universidad del País Vasco, 2018, pp. 235–258.
David Neilson, “Class, Precarity, and Anxiety under Neoliberal Global Capitalism: From Denial to Resistance,” Theory & Psychology, vol. 25, no. 2, 2015, pp. 1–18.
Lara García Díaz and Pascal Gielen, “Precarity as an Artistic Laboratory for Counter-Hegemonic Labour Organization,” Precarious Work, Precarious Life: Frame Journal of Literary Studies, vol.30, no. 2, December 2017.
Pierre Bourdieu, Distinction: A Social Critique of Taste, trans. Richard Nice, London and New York: Routledge, 1984.
Isabell Lorey, State of Insecurity: Government of the Precarious, New York: Verso, 2015.
Ulrich Bröckling, The Entrepreneurial Self, Los Angeles and London: Sage Publications, 2015.
Isabell Lorey, State of Insecurity: Government of the Precarious, London; New York, 2015, pp. 109.
Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire, New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
See Lorey and Hardt and Negri.
Judith Butler, Precarious Life: The Powers of Mourning and Violence, London; New York: Verso, 2004.
Georg Lukács, History and Class Consciousness: Studies in Marxist Dialectics; London: The Merlin Press, 1971.
Antonio Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, London and New York: International Publishers Co., 1971.
This argument should be taken with caution depending on the context in which those theaters, museums, festivals, or biennials are operating. We are very much aware that not all countries have the same freedom of expression and how, in some regions, a clear political position can lead to judicial or criminal penalties. However, what we want to highlight here is how platforms such as biennials—as in the cases of the Istanbul Biennial in 2013 or the Sao Paõlo Biennial in 2014—have served, in some occasions, as spaces for political experimentation, articulation, and demonstration even if they are linked to hegemonic sponsoring.
Lorey, State of Insecurity.
Butler, Precarious Life: The Powers of Mourning and Violence, pp. 66–98.
Copyleft, as opposed to copyright, is the practice of offering the free circulation of a work in its original and modified form with the provision that derivative forms maintain this offer.
Pascal Gielen and Philipp Dietachmair, The Art of Civil Action, Amsterdam: Valiz, 2017.
Lawrence Lessig, Free Culture: How Big Media uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity, New York, 2004.